NIST Policy on Metrological Traceability

Keep in mind that the requirements document will also need to be revised when this occurs. Bidirectional traceability also helps ensure that all requirements are addressed and that only what is required is developed. Bidirectional traceability matrices also make it less likely that requirements are misinterpreted as they are refined. In many countries, national standards for weights and measures are maintained by a National Metrological Institute which provides the highest level of standards for the calibration / measurement traceability infrastructure in that country.

The verb “trace” in turn has a plethora of meanings, and the most relevant for our purposes are “to follow the footprints, track, or trail of” and “to follow or study out in detail or step by step” (Merriam-Webster, 2012). “Trace” is reported as being a word where the first known use is in the 14th century and the origin is from the Anglo-French tracer (Merriam-Webster, 2012), the Vulgar Latin tractiare – to drag, and the Latin tractus – past participle of trahere – to pull . Its basic idea is to ensure safety and prevent accidents and disasters by adding functional equipment to protect human life, health, and environment from hazardous events. ISO 26262, which is the functional safety standard concerning automotive electrical/electronic systems, is also derived from IEC 61508. The quality management system of the International Organization for Standardization is generally called the ISO 9000 series or ISO 9000 family and ISO 9001 is the most important standard in this family.

Top-notch Examples of Natural Language Processing in Action

Change impact analysis – if a requirement is changing, trace links inform about related and dependent artifacts. Confirm 100% code test coverage has been achieved or addressed for all identified software safety-critical components or provide a risk assessment explaining why the test coverage is not possible for the safety-critical code component. NASA-specific bidirectional traceability resources are available in Software Processes Across NASA , accessible to NASA users from the SPAN tab in this Handbook. The key to determining if the software is safety-critical software is the hazard analysis process.

definition of horizontal traceability

Blockchain technology’s ability to support information sharing in a distributed network and create an immutable and traceable digital record of historical transactions makes it an attractive option for SCT. However, a major challenge persists – defining the scope of a blockchain-enabled SCT solution in terms of the number stages of the supply chain encompassed and the granularity of information captured at each supply chain stage. We analyze multiple cross-industry case studies and conduct an expert executive workshop to identify empirically the motivations and contextual factors influencing the diversity in the scope of traceability targeted by different organizations. We present a new evidence-based framework to define the scope of SCT depending on the motivations for and purpose of traceability. The framework specifies five identification categories and five levels of granularity of information within each category to inform and support decision-making on the types of data to capture across the supply chain for effective and scalable deployment of blockchain-enabled SCT solutions.

5.1.7 Add traceability links

This is the case whether that provider is NIST or another organization. Are either homogeneous materials or stable artifacts that are used to test and evaluate the measurement performance of different measuring systems when they are employed in specific tasks. Is to attest formally that traceability has been established for a specific measurement result.

definition of horizontal traceability

The second standard needed for counting finitely many entities is the unique subset of the consecutive positive integers including 1 and its successors, in the sense of Peano’s axioms that can be put into one-to-one correspondence with the elements of the set whose elements are being counted. If no such subset of the positive integers exists, then we say that the count is 0. NIST does not approve, recommend, or endorse any product or proprietary material.

Manual traceability

It is the tool in charge of the MonitoringModel identifying the changes (the green area in Fig. 3). It deals with each error by sending a warning if a change is detected, or an error message to the team if a problem is detected and cannot be solved automatically. Conflicts are thus resolved semi–automatically, while conflict detection is automatic.

definition of horizontal traceability

The survey provides food policy and socio-economic data that facilitate the examination of traceability issues in organic agriculture. Select suitable means for identification throughout the processes from production to retail to allow identification of outputs such as finished products and information in every process. Use suitable means to identify outputs when it is necessary to ensure the conformity of products and services. In general, the Certificate also contains a disclaimer for improper handling of a material. It is up to the user to document appropriate storage and preservation of a material.

1 References

Shows an example of traceability between input requirements and software requirements. In the example, there appears a system requirement that is not covered; it is thus necessary to add a justification to show that nothing has been forgotten. The specification phase consists of producing an application requirement specification that needs to cover the data and generic software.

It is important because it can point out software design elements that are not fulfilled in the code (i.e., missing or incomplete functionality) and source code that does not have a parent design element (i.e., extra functionality). Ideally, the trace does not identify any elements that have no source, such as a design element with no parent requirement. Still, if such “orphan” elements are discovered in the trace, they need to be discussed by the project team and assurance personnel to determine if the “orphan” elements are necessary. If they are determined to be necessary, any missing source elements, such as requirements, are added to the project.

Key Modeling Techniques

Management and utilization of the manufacturing history and inspection results of these parts by the plant can also be regarded as internal traceability. This provides manufacturers with the benefit of easier cause investigation and product recall when unexpected problems occur with their products. Consumers can also use this as a benchmark to select highly reliable products, without worries such as mislabeling.

  • Traceability supports numerous software engineering activities such as change impact analysis, compliance verification or traceback of code, regression test selection, and requirements validation.
  • The development team was made up of about 15 people and each result had to be validated with the general project team.
  • Bidirectional traceability matrices also make it less likely that requirements are misinterpreted as they are refined.
  • When a change in requirement happens, effective impact analysis is possible with the help a traceability matrix.
  • In order to ensure traceability to artifact types beyond requirements, RM tools often allow to import other artifacts as surrogate requirements that can then be traced with the tool’s requirements tracing methods.

In practice, traceability often implies a qualitative improvement, but one which is usually difficult to measure. The difficulty of comparing software development with and without traceability management under almost identical conditions is also the main reason for the lack of systematic evaluations regarding traceability return on investment . The food industry and the academic world work together with the aim of responding to market demands, always seeking excellence. In particular, what is horizontal traceability the meat industry has to face a series of challenges such as, achieving sensory attributes in accordance with the standards required by the consumer and maintaining a high level of safety and transparency, avoiding deliver adulterated and/or contaminated products. The Codex Alimentarius Commission Procedural Manual (FAO/WHO, 1997) defines traceability as “the ability to follow the movement of a food through specified stage of production, processing and distribution”.

Chain Traceability

The EU introduced its Trade Control and Expert System, or TRACES, in April 2004. The system provides a central database to track movement of animals within the EU and from third countries. Within a product’s supply chain, traceability may be both a regulatory and an ethical or environmental issue. Traceability is increasingly becoming a core criterion for sustainability efforts related to supply chains wherein knowing the producer, workers and other links stands as a necessary factor that underlies credible claims of social, economic, or environmental impacts.

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